Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Welfare Reform: Promoting Independence and Self-Reliance Mary Smith gets up every day at 6 am and begins to hustle around the house. She rouses her three children from their slumber and forces them to get ready for school. Once the kids are on the bus, she hops in her car and heads off to her job at the local fast food restaurant. After working her seven hours at the restaurant, she goes to her night course at the college in town. The course she is taking will help her get her high school diploma and possibly lead her to a successful career. These two things have been dreams of Mary's for so long, but she hasn't been able to attain them until now. She has been on welfare since the age of eighteen after having her first baby, Elijah. Most days life still seems like an endless tunnel, but now she thinks she may be starting to see a little light through the darkness. Many single mothers, like Mary Smith, and others on welfare have been given the chance to pursue happiness because of the reforms to the United States' welfare system. In August of 1996, President Bill Clinton signed legislation that changed much of the system. The bill that he signed was called the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. The three goals of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 were "1) to reduce welfare dependency and increase employment, 2) to reduce child poverty and 3) to reduce illegitimacy and strengthen marriage" (Rector, par. 1). Clinton's plan also included three new rules: "1) requires most recipients to work within two years of receiving assistance; 2) limits most assistance to five years total; and 3) lets states establish 'family caps' to deny additiona... ...ec. 2001. < http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- srv/politics/special/welfare/stories/welfare052799.htm. > Naughton, Keith. " From the Frying Pan to the Factory." Business Week. 1 June 1998: 106. Otto, Mary. " Sustaining Welfare-to-Work." Washingtonpost.com. 2 Dec. 2001. 6 Dec. 2001. < http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43074-Dec1.html.> Pear, Robert. " Changes in Welfare Bring Improvements for Families." The New York Times on the Web. 1 June 2000. 7 Dec. 2001. ? < http://www.nytimes.com/library/politics/060100mn-welfare.html.> Rector, Robert and Patrick F. Fagan. " The Good News About Welfare Reform." The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder. 5 Sept. 2001. 2 Dec. 2001. ? < http://www.heritage.org/library/backgrounder/bg1468.html>
Monday, January 13, 2020
Just like in end terminal / customer premise equipment (CPE) distribution, countries in European countries experience new applications and data services relatively in the same time with other regions like Asia and North America (USA and Canada). Figure 1 shows the current figure of telephone users in the world based on regions. Figure 1 Main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants (1994 -2004) Source: ITU. Ã¢â¬Å"The Digital Divide at a glance. Ã¢â¬ 2005. Retrieved December 10, 2007 from http://www.itu. int/wsis/tunis/newsroom/stats/ In terms of mobile service penetration rates, Europe is the leader since it currently composes of more than 570 million mobile subscribers and a mobile penetration of over 70%. It leaves other regions behind in mobile penetration rate in which Africa only accounts for 9%, America records 42%, and 19% in Asia Pacific. The high penetration rate has put mobile subscribers in Europe to surpass those in fixed phone lines. This situation also holds true for data communication in the region in which according to ITU (2005), the region has penetration rate above 50%, especially in Western Europe while the rest past of the region only records 20% of Internet penetration rate. However, like its Asian counterparts, some countries in Europe also experiences uneven users since in Russia, for instances, vast majority of subscribers located in large urban centers. 1. M-Commerce: Opportunities and Challenges Moreover, the advancement of telecommunications and internet technologies has created new model of commerce, the borderless commerce or e-commerce. The terminology refers to cross-nations or even cross-continents trade and commerce. This development goes further as Internet is accessible not only via desktop computers but also via mobile devices like PDAs and mobile phones. The benefit of using mobile commerce (m-commerce) is attractive. Say, a woman is shopping at a mall and decides to buy some clothes. Unfortunately, when she is at a cahier, she finds that her debit card has no enough balance to pay the clothes or her credit cards are out of limit. In this situation, she called her husband to transfer some money to her account. Although her husband is in a meeting that is far from a bank, he is still able to do the fund transfer by using his mobile phone and log into a bankÃ¢â¬â¢s mobile portal. Finally, in few minutes, the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s bank account has enough balance to pay the clothes. Similarly, mobile phones can also act as a virtual debit card when it is used as a payment method for vending machines. The method of this transaction is by sending sms (short message services) from usersÃ¢â¬â¢ mobile phones and typing the short number that is displayed in the vending machines. When the server of the vending machines received this sms, they ask the telecommunication carrier to deduct some amount of money from the personÃ¢â¬â¢s prepaid balance or to add a transaction into his next billing statement.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Why Standarized Test Are Not Effectively Working Since the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, standardized testing has been a part of our American Education system as a way to measure our studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic achievement. In 2002, the George W. Bush era, No Child Left Behind Act had mandated standardized testing be implemented in all of 50 states across the country. Since this act has been implemented, the rankings of United States for math had slipped fallen from 18th in the world, to now a ranking of a meager 31st place as of 2009. Schools use standardized tests to determine if children are ready for school, group them into classes, and decide whether to promote or retain students. Even though, I completely agree that some of these testing can help to determine potential for academic success, it should not be the only scale of measure for children to move on academically. As a student you learn more about what the teacher deems important, but are evaluated on by what the state thinks is important . Standardized tests are not a reliable way to evaluate someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence in my opinion and families should not let this test determine the educational path our children take. Standardized Tests consists of only two subjects: English and Math. This ignores other subjects in the humanities such as music, art, and science. This gives people the idea that humanities are less important than math and English. These tests also force teachers to structure their curriculum. Since the curriculums are so narrow,Show MoreRelatedPersonal Statement For A Humanities And Social Science Career1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand the ATAR Modern History units. Working at SIDE I worked on developing new courses to align with the new ATAR units, both for Year 11 and Year 12. The way I delivered content in my Year 11 Modern History classes throughout the year was continuously evolving in response to the increasing amount of data I gathered regarding studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance. I recorded data on how student were performing across a range of field, such as, their results in source analysis tests. I maintained a spread sheet thatRead MoreEssay On Test Result Reflection728 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages (Purpose of the paper, what career you chose) Test Result Reflection In order to help in determine a possible career, our class took a few test. The test that we took consisted of: Multiple intelligence Test, Myer Briggs Personality Test, and the Kuder Test. The Multiple intelligence test was the first test we took; this test helped to determine some of my weaknesses and strengths when it comes to working with other people and myself. The test also gave us possible careers that matched or wouldRead MoreThe Land Of Opportunity By James W. Deming763 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe common American people arenÃ¢â¬â¢t given equal opportunity in this day and age. Loewen effectively convinces his readers, high school teachers and history buffs that, social class and inequality is an important thing for students to learn and understand. Through convincing logical arguments he proves that American history books are giving students across the nation false information. According to Loewen, Ã¢â¬Å"social class is probably the single most important variable in societ y.Ã¢â¬ (Loewen para. 5) He goesRead MoreLeadership Strengths And Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities And Threats1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand challenge. Evaluate the validity of this assessment, including whether you agree or disagree with the scores. The purpose for this test is to identify strengths and weaknesses in leadership and evaluate a course of action in order to fortify the impuissanceÃ¢â¬â¢s. It is essential as a student to possess a vigorous leadership skill especially when working on the Doctorate. The validity of this assessment could be considered Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ , because I feel if I retook the assessment I would assuredly answerRead More Philosophy of Education Essay573 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesdisciplines. It should develop skills that will facilitate living and working in an ever-changing world; one filled with diversity. As a teacher, I would hope to illustrate to my students how vital each and every one of them is to the world as a whole. My classroom would be bright and colorful. Examples of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ work would be displayed. The environment will be student centered. The desks would be arranged in a circle for class discussions, and be moved into separate stations for cooperativeRead MoreCttls Analyse Role of Initial Assesment Essay examples1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhich sessions plans can be adapted to the individual needs of the learners. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify and evaluate opportunities for learners to provide feedback to inform practice. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify and liaise with appropriate and relevant parties to effectively meet the needs of the learners. Analyze the role of initial assessment in the learning and teaching process. The role of initial, assessment in the learning environment and teaching process is to identify differentRead MoreGraduation Speech : High School1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesare required to have a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree and only the top 10% are chosen for the job (Moore). The quality of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher is the single most important school-related factor for his or her success. Teachers should be chosen from the top of their class, train them extensively, create opportunities for them to collaborate with others within and across schools to enhance their practice and provide them the external supports that they need to do their work well. If the U.S. refines the expertise ofRead MoreEssay on Overview of Learning1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesintellectual abilities. Two important factors come into play when discussing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence: one that Bell Hooks talks about which is background and one that Howard Gardner studies which is intelligence. Two tests made to test o neÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectual abilities are IQ tests and SAT test. These test oneÃ¢â¬â¢s linguistic intelligence and oneÃ¢â¬â¢s logical-mathematical intelligence. So I raise the question: is that the only kind of intelligence we as students posses? And does a personÃ¢â¬â¢s background influence what theyRead MoreThe Most Difficult One On One Meeting You Have Had With A Supervisor Or Professor1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith a supervisor or professor. What specific actions did you take? How did you bring the situation to successful closure? There was a time that I needed assistance from my professor on understanding some philosophical theory that was discussed in class, but my professor did not really explain the idea well enough for me to understand. I was required to write an essay that compared and contrast the different versions of Utilitarianism, but philosophical ideas were kind of hard for me to follow andRead MoreSusan Is A Woman Fresh Out Of College1462 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSusan is a woman fresh out of college with the readiness to fulfill her duties as a receptionist. She has been working with company ITM for three months now and loves her job. During a typical day on the job, she greets guests that walk into ITM, answers the phones, books the meetings, and works with suppliers to order supplies for the office. Susan approaches her work with enthusiasm and much organization skill. She was always an outgoing person and went through all the schooling necessary. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s
Friday, December 27, 2019
Throughout life, a person comes across so many influential and memorable people. Jane Eyre was one individual whose life has been influenced and developed based on numerous people and surroundings. JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s living situation was unfortunately made up for her when her parents died, which caused her to not live the life she was meant to live. This tragedy has shaped Jane in becoming whom she is due to her positive and negative experiences growing up. Growing up in Gateshead has had a detrimental effect on who Jane was becoming. Living with her aunt and cousins didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a great effect on Jane as a child. Jane wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t an ordinary child who loved to play and joke around; she was more mature then the rest and loved reading instead. In Gateshead, Mrs. Reed treated Jane like an outcast. Her aunt treated her very cruel causing Jane to be cold hearted and emotionless. Jane lived as if she was in a world by herself because she was treated as if she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t part of the family. She would constantly be isolate by Mrs. Reed. Mentally and verbally abused; she still managed to stand for what she believed in. Being that Jane wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t your typical child it filled Mrs. Reed with rage because she felt that she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t superior. Mrs. Reed has left a mental scar in JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s head because of the way she treated her. JaneÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the best due to living in Gateshead not only was she given a hard time by Mrs. Reed but by John Reed also. John was her vicious cousin that made her life aShow MoreRelatedJane Eyre: Rochester as a Byronic Hero1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessomewhat mysterious personality. However, with the gothic atmosphere of Jane Eyre, it seems almost suiting for the hero to embody many such attributes of a Byronic hero One of the most prominent literary character types of the Romantic period, the Byronic hero is not conventionally heroic and his dark qualities tend to reject the image of a traditional hero. We see the influence Byrons poetry had on Brontes writing; when in Jane Eyre, Bronte makes a reference to one of his works, The Corsair,Ã HereRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Hunger Games By Scott Westerfeld1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBrontÃ «Ã¢â¬â¢s Jane Eyre inspired writers like Jean Rhys to write Wide Sargasso Sea and Gilbert and Gubar to pen the first edition of The Madwoman in the Attic, opened the path for Suzanne Collins to publish The Hunger Games Trilogy and Heike Steinhoff, Ruhr-UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Dean of American Studies, to publish her thesis paper, Transforming Bodies. As a feminist novel and as an early trailblazer in the subgenre of female-led rebellion, Uglies will survive the test of time much in the same way Jane Eyre has, throughRead MoreSimilarities And Differences B etween Jane Eyre And Brillette1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBurnham Bloom 12/12/2017 Final Exam Wuthering Heights, Jane Eyre and Villette are three of the great novels that were written by Bronte sisters. Emily Bronte, and Charlotte Bronte that were a part of the Bronte literary family. The novel Wuthering Heights was written by Emily Bronte and was her first and only published novel and it was published in 1847. The book wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t an instant success but it changed many years later. Jane Eyre and Villette are novels that were written by Charlotte BronteRead MoreSimilarities Between Charlotte Brontes Life and Jane Eyres Life6996 Words Ã |Ã 28 PagesABSTRACT This study mainly concerns with the similarities between Jane Eyre and Charlotte BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The aim is to find out how Charlotte BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s life and experiences affect Jane Eyre. The most frequently and the most effective similarities from the earlier parts of their lives to the end of their lives are given in this study. It is also aimed to determine the frequency of similarities and effectiveness of these similarities by analyzing their lives. After analyzing the collectedRead MoreSimilarities Between Charlotte BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s Life and Jane EyreÃ¢â¬â¢s Life7010 Words Ã |Ã 29 PagesABSTRACT This study mainly concerns with the similarities between Jane Eyre and Charlotte BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The aim is to find out how Charlotte BronteÃ¢â¬â¢s life and experiences affect Jane Eyre. The most frequently and the most effective similarities from the earlier parts of their lives to the end of their lives are given in this study. It is also aimed to determine the frequency of similarities and effectiveness of these similarities by analyzing their lives. After analyzing the collectedRead MoreSummary of Value/Evaluation by Barbara Hernstein Smith Essay1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessingle, simple property or possession (180). Smith first alludes to her ongoing model here, when she refers to the complexity of Charlotte Brontes novel Jane Eyre and the many combining forces defining the value of the text, including, but not exclusive to, its sales, its use within cultures and communities, and the revelations and memories within the text. It is only after defining value that Smith moves on to describe the more complex idea of evaluation. She begins by questioning the traditionalRead More Suffering and Injustice in the Opening Chapters of Charlotte BrontÃ «Ã¢â¬â¢s Jane Eyre3724 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesSuffering and Injustice in the Opening Chapters of Charlotte BrontÃ «Ã¢â¬â¢s Jane Eyre At the time the novel Jane Eyre was written, it was very difficult for women writers to have their books published. Charlotte BrontÃ « was very aware of the problem, and cleverly changed her name to Currer Bell so the book would be accepted. Luckily for Charlotte, her novel Jane Eyre was published in October 1847, and since writing this novel, Charlotte BrontÃ « has become very popular, and a classic author. TheRead MoreJane Eyre By Charlotte Bronte2164 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesbecause of their gender, but also because they did not have any independent source of wealth. Published in 1847, Jane Eyre written by Charlotte BrontÃ « depicts the life of women during that time that were economically devalued and socially marginalized. Women were not seen as equals to men and being independent meant being free from the influences of others. The novel tells the story of Jane Eyre, a young Victorian woman on a quest to fulfill a sense of equality and independence in her life. ThroughoutRead More Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre: Jane Eyres Artwork Essay1824 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesJane Eyres Artwork Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Each picture told a story; mysterious often to my undeveloped understanding and imperfect feelings, yet ever profoundly interesting. --Jane Eyre (9) Ã There is something extraordinary and spiritual about Jane Eyres artwork. In her story, Janes solitary pastime sometimes operates as an outlet of past or present pain, and often offers her a chance to deal with unpleasant memories and emotions. Janes art transcends her isolation by bringing her into contactRead MoreThe Muse of History by Derek Walcott1751 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAntillean Articulation The Caribbean culture is a result of an amalgamation of different fragments of historical influences. Colonialism led to Europeans who brought Africans then Indians to lands that were already occupied by native Arawak and Amerindian Indians. This ensued a postcolonial environment that displayed a culture that was often schizophrenic. The culture that has been handed down whether through oppressive powers or willfully acquired offer inspiration for artists. In Derek WalcottÃ¢â¬â¢s
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Andrew Parrill Christopher McBride LITR220 July 2, 2017 Does It Matter Where Olaudah Equiano Was Born? The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, by Olaudah Equiano, can be described as one of the most successful literary prose written by an African-American up to the start of the Civil War. Autobiographies were not considered a form genre in the literary field at the time it was published in 1789 and few books that had been produced in America gave such garish, solid and adventurous narratives. Equiano s narrative was well known because it contained spiritual components and sparked the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s curiosity in the scope of the lives of dignitaries that Equiano encountered in hisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Nineteenth-century readers were acquainted with this form and approached slave narratives with predetermined anticipation. Readers of the Eighteenth-century had approached Equiano s narrative without these preconceived expectations and therefore read it in the context of a more customary literature depicting abolition. Literature of this type typically consisted of tracts, pamphlets and factual books and also made up of poems, novels and plays. Since readers were mostly accustomed to hearing general truths about slavery and the slave trade entrenched within fictional narratives rather than certain and certifiable accounts of history, it is debatable whether or not they wouldn t have cared very much about whether the details of Equiano s story contained a particularized truth when the book clearly dramatized what was typically true for many slaves. It has been argued that his writings resemble the writings of other American and European authors yet is well known in the literary field that it is not unusual for autobiographers to refer to both their own notes and personal journals as well as the writings of others in ord er to recreate vague memories of their past. Why should Equiano be any different than other autobiographers in that instance? By looking at the ways in which The Interesting Narrative negotiatesShow MoreRelatedThe Narrative Of Olaudah Equiano1701 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, is a personal autobiography of himself, Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, documenting the hardships of slavery throughout his lifetime. Equiano writes one of the best primary sources from a slaveÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective and masterÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective during slavery. Equiano does not hold back on the horrors of what traveling as a slave from West Indies to North America was really like. Olaudah Equiano shares his heart wrenching journey through the brutalityRead MoreA Narrative Of The Life Of Olaudah Equiano1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCaptivity narratives were popular with readers in both America and the European continent during the era of North and South American discovery and colonization. They related the experiences of whites being enslaved by Native Americans and of Africans being e nslaved by whites. Two captivity narratives that were widely read during the time are A Narrative of the Capture and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson by Mary Rowlandson and The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano by Olaudah EquianoRead MoreEquiano s Narrative Of The Life Of Olaudah Equiano1367 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOlaudah Equiano, the author of The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano was captured in Africa and sold into slavery. Later in life, he purchased his freedom and wrote his autobiography in 1789. Equiano experienced hardships beyond imaging in his years as a slave and oftentimes witnessed extensive cruelty by whites towards Africans. Equiano s experience of the Atlantic slave trade and middle passage as we understand it today was typical of a regular captive. The Atlantic slave tradeRead MoreOlaudah Equiano s Narrative Of The Life Of Olaudah Essay1458 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Olaudah Equiano, also known as Gustavus Vassa, traveled much of the world encountering a variety of people from different cultures and backgrounds. In EquianoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, the author witnesses how slavery was imbedded in the economic and social values of his day and age, through the experiences of others as well as himself. Having numerous relationships with people of differing religions, socioeconomic statuses, and principles, he developed a uniqueRead MoreEquiano : The Interesting Narrative Of The Life Of Olaudah Equiano987 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesunimaginable in our society. Olaudah Equiano was former enslaved African who wrote an autobiography The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, which he fully goes into great detail about his encounter with slavery. Equiano was born in 1745 in the province of Igbo which is town in the country of Nigeria. Equiano describes his father who was an Embrenche, which is a chief or a respect leader in the community who helped decide conflicts and punished crimes. For instance Equiano recalls that adulteryRead MoreEquiano s Narrative Of The Life Of Olaudah Equiano Essay1579 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThroughout the book The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Equiano tries to say that he is just an ordinary person, but this cannot be the case. He survives several ship wrecks, learns to read and write, and is able to buy his freedom. This is far from ordinary and borderlines with extraordinary. As he describes his adventures he starts by telling you a depressing story of how his sister got separated from him. This sets up the reader to know that there is plenty more tragedy toRead MoreOlaudah Equiano s Narrative Of The Life Of Olaudah1993 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesInteresting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano is a classical and well known slave Narrative. Olaudah Equiano who also goes by the name of Gustavus Vassa his given name was born in 1745 in a part of Africa that is now known as Nigeria. . Olaudah E quinoÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative tells the story of his travels as a slave and then as a freeman through the Artic, North and Central America, the West Indies, Europe and Great Britain. This narrative was first published in 1789 and was written by him. When Equiano wasRead MoreEquiano s From The Interesting Narrative Of Olaudah Equiano980 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOlaudah EquianoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"From the Interesting Narrative of Olaudah EquianoÃ¢â¬ is written with the intent of ending the slave trade and aiding the abolitionistsÃ¢â¬â¢ movement. His narrative tells his personal story of kidnapping, being sold into slavery and his experience in the middle passage. According to this account Olaudah Equiano grew up in Africa with a large family. He was captured and sold into slavery at age eleven. As an adult he became an opposing voice to slavery. This autobiography was publishedRead MoreOlaudah Equiano s Narrative Of Slavery1061 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOlaudah Equiano was one of the most famous black men in the history of slavery who was fortunate enough to purchase his own freedom. In addition, Equiano becomes extremely popular by writing his first slave narrative in 1789. In his autobiography named The interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano he emphasized various aspects of slavery throughout the entire book. In the narrative, he establishes his perspective about himself, God and Slavery. He was definably a man of motivation forRead MoreThe Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe novel The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano exists as an extremely important work in the abolitionist movement in England. As an 18th century narrative written by a former black slave the novel provides a glimpse into the lives of the African slaves involved in the slave trade as well as the slave traders themselves. Even with the controversy over the authenticity of EquianoÃ¢â¬â¢s claims on his origin in Africa and his subsequent voyage through the Middle Passage, this novel serves
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Concepts of Precaution, Relief, and Recovery. Answer: Predominantly, precautionary measures are taken before the occurrence of an event, or taken to reduce the possibility of an event happening and lastly taken to mitigate the occurrence of an event. Usually, natural disaster precautionary measures are implemented by the government. However, all persons should be stakeholders in disaster management .For instance the implementation of the Delta plan in Holland which led to the construction of the Maelstant Barrier to protect the Rotterdam Port. This Delta plan was solely engineered by the Government of Holland through its commission (Surowiecki, 2012) Notably, government based precautionary measure include construction of levees and barriers against flooding, Zoning regulations and incorporation of warning systems .Private stakeholders can help minimize the consequences of these natural disasters through relocating to safer grounds, choosing houses likely to withstand natural disasters like flooding .Predominantly, relief measures are designed to limit the severity of the consequence following the occurrence of the event. Notably, relief efforts consist of first aid to the victims, evacuation and search and rescue activities. Further, relief services involve resource pooling, communication and medical infrastructure coordination by relief providers. Following Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, the federal government allocated $75b for relief efforts .Notably slow evacuations and poorly coordinated rescue efforts marred the relief efforts in New Orleans due to the unpreparedness .However, with proper media coverage, more organized and sufficient relief efforts took place (Federal bank of Atlanta,2015)Notably, a successful relief expedition needs proper coordination and funding which is highly attainable through government agencies Significantly, recovery has helped natural disaster victims and affected areas move on. Notably, recovery takes place after the occurrence of the disaster .Further, recovery could be through compensation or reconstruction. Primarily, compensation deals with payments being awarded to the victims to rebuild their lives and access to medical and mental health support whereas reconstruction deals with public services restoration. For example, following the Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans has experienced major reconstruction and economic growth following its restoration through government and other private stakeholders. Year Peril Insured Loss 2005 Katrina 41.1 2004 Hurricane Charley 7.5 1992 Hurricane Andrew 15.5 Source : Insurance services Inc ,Insurance Information System,2015 Notably, New Orleans infrastructure greatly improved following the hurricane Katrina (Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, 2015) The reconstruction efforts were majorly funded by the government. Also, the American Red cross, Salvation Army, and other private stakeholders chipped in. Notably, the federal emergency management Agency dedicated $120.5m for disaster management. With the reconstruction, better infrastructure was put in place which boosted the living standards of inhabitants, improved access to public services and opened possibilities for investors thus creating more jobs for and increased government revenue. Effects of Recovery on Precaution Recovery cost in most cases is more expensive than precautionary measures (Sivandan, 2015).However, recovery is the right time to plan for future reoccurrence of natural disasters through precautionary measures(Parker,2016)Notably, early preparation for the reoccurrence of natural disasters will significantly mitigate the effects of the disaster. Although, in most cases, government intervention has created overdependence on government intervention as compared to precautionary measures. Recovery causes more awareness and action as compared to precautionary measures (Wilson and Temple et. al, n.d.) Effects of Relief on Recovery and Precaution. Undoubtedly, relief is vital and beneficial to victims in that the victims are able to be evacuated and taken to safety where they are offered medical and psychological which is the first step to recovery .Evidently, relief interventions largely reduce recovery costs due to the promptness of the relief activities. Furthermore, relief mitigates recovery oversupply and in the process dilutes incentives for disaster prevention measures. In addition, relief decreases the severity of the losses on lives and property thereby translating into decreased recovery expenditure by government and private individuals Usually, precaution precedes relief.However, in most cases relief triggers prevention where theres a possibility of reoccurrence. Relief is a damage control tool to save lives and irreplaceable belongings .Relief has created overdependence on government thus expanding the budget for relief efforts (Management of disasters, 2015).Relief efforts are temporary. Relief efforts are likely to stir precautionary measures by private stakeholders due to the irreplaceable nature of lives and property of nonpecuniary nature thus personal responsibility thereby reducing relief costs .Also, recovery causes ignorance of precautionary measures due to relief and recovery benefits. Optimal Relief Efforts. Ideally, optimal relief efforts must be speedy and sufficient to cover the affected areas and victims within short time possible. Regarding public provision, the government is best placed to address relief efforts due to its public interest driven incentives and an obligation .Further, security during relief operations is vital and the government is adequately equipped with facilities and trained personnel as opposed to private individuals. Also, Centralized relief operations are likely to offer timely and properly coordinated results thus making the government the optimal relief provider due to its resources, training and obligation to all citizens. Positive and Negative Externalities of Decentralized Relief. Noteworthy, decentralized relief efforts has enabled private stakeholders and the corporate world to be involved in relief services.Notably, the Coca-Cola company offered a large supply of water through its distribution chain during the 2004 Tsunami .Further, Fedex, DHL, and UPS offered free transportation for relief cargo thereby providing relief services (Thomas and Fritz,2006)Positively, decentralized relief promotes unity and social responsibility. Further, infrastructure is improved during relief missions. For instance, in cases of a hurricane or massive snowing, transport systems may be improved to reach the victims for relief purposes. Also, decentralized relief boosts coordination and communication. Further, economic development may result from decentralized relief efforts in the sense that many relief centers may be required to serve a large number of victims divided over the rescue area .Inevitably, this has created a need for decentralized rescue centers thus creating jobs. Eventually, after the crisis, relief infrastructure will keep serving the communities .Negatively, poor coordination and communication between decentralized relief centers leads to slow response thus furthering damage severity thereby increasing the expenditure for recovery. Decentralized relief efforts could lead to environmental pollution due to the fact that each relief operation has its own relief guidelines and policies .However, a centralized relief operation minimizes pollution and damage risks due to internal coordination of the relief operations. In addition, politics shapes disaster management policies and measures thereby affecting victims and non-victims in that setting up of the disaster management task force and budget is part of the public finances obtained through revenue collection as taxes. Thereby the tax burden is on the citizens to contribute to the disaster management operation funding whether future victim or not (Depoorter, 2006) References Depoorter, B. (2006) Horizontal Political Externalities : The supply and demand for Disaster Management. Duke. [Online]Available at https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1295context=dlj[Accessed 9 May 2017] Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. (2015)Economics of Disaster: New Orleans and Katrina .Federal Reserve Bank of Australia.[Online]Available at https://frbatlanta.org/education/publications/extra-credit/2015/fall/economics-of-disaster[Accessed 9 May 2017] Management of Disasters. (n.d.) Introduction to International disaster Management. Waseda [Online] Available at https://www.waseda.jp/gsaps/eaui/educational_program/PDF_WS2015/Lecture1_Reading2_Zha.pdf[Accessed 8 May 2017] Parker, D.(2016)The Economics of Natural disasters: Mitigating the Impact.Fireengineering.com. [Online]Available at https://www.fireengineering.com/articles/print/volume-169/issue-9/features/the-economics-of-natural-disasters-mitigating-the-impact.html[Accessed 9 May 2017] Thoma, A and Fritz, L .(2006)Social Responsibility: Disaster Relief, Inc.Harvard Business Review.[Online]Available at https://hbr.org/2006/11/disaster-relief-inc[Accessed 8 May 2017] Sivanandan, T.V. (2015) Compensation for Natural Disaster Victims Increased. The Hindu.com. [Online]Available for https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/compensation-for-natural-disaster-victims-increased/article7111471.ece[Accessed 9 May 2017] Surowiecki, J.(2012)Disaster Economics .The New Yorker.[Online]Available at https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/12/03/disaster-economics[Accessed 9 May 2017] Wilson,S, Temple,B et.al.(n.d.)The lack of Disaster Preparedness by the public and its effect on Communities .Internet Scientific Publications.[Online]Available at Http://ispub.com/IJRDM/7/2/11721[Accessed 9 May 2017
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
The civil rights movement black panther party Essay Most of us, being United States citizens, would like to believe that everyone in this country is living in conditions of utmost freedom and equality. Although according to the constitution this is true, anyone who has ever been the victim of oppression knows not to take equality for granted. Our society has slowly grown to accept the different types of people that live in our country; it is now a lot less common to see peoples rights such as freedom and equality being abused. However, the influences of the past, when the living conditions were far less then equal for many groups of people, can still be witnessed today. A fine example of this could be seen through the way in which housing discrimination led to the colonization of Blacks into their own neighborhoods and communities, which eventually led to the creation of ghettos and gangs. We will write a custom essay on The civil rights movement black panther party specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Racism, in itself, is a belief that a person holds; it forces another being to be placed at a lower status within ones mind and in the society as a whole. Keeping Blacks and other minorities at a lower level was the principal state of mind for many of the whites during the early part of the twentieth century. This kind of mentality exists in our society till this day among certain groups of people. The cold and harsh manner with which the Blacks were treated takes us all the way back to slavery. Back in those days the majority of this countrys population accepted it. The oppressed African Americans eventually began to become more organized and started to fight for the civil rights they deserved as citizens of the United States. Despite the attempts of the Civil Rights Movement, much damage was already done; unfortunately many minds were already tarnished with negative images of what the Black person was and could ever be. In spite of the fact that many Black people were working towards moving up and making a life for themselves, racism continuously kept them from advancing in the society. In the early part of the twentieth century racism placed a strong precedent for the way in which Blacks are today. After the civil war more and more free Blacks began to migrate north. They were seeking the possibility of better social and economic opportunities (Abrams 10). The high hopes were soon brought back down, as the Blacks were welcomed to the cities by the overwhelming mentality of the masters looking down on their slaves. They encountered landlord after landlord turning them away because of their unwillingness to rent to Blacks and other newly migrated minorities. It was this constant refusal to integrate housing that eventually caused the creation of minority driven neighborhoods. Since the majority of the whites turned their backs on Blacks and the other minorities, African Americans were forced into forming the types of communities that contained people of their race and poor financial state. Many of them came looking to move ahead in their new lives that they were recently granted by the constitution; but they were only pushed to join the fairly new neighborhoods, which were slums compared to those inhabited by the dominating white residences. The reason for this type of segregation could be explained as another tool of racism for the white mans advantage. The effects of these neighborhoods were more damaging then the simple prevention of Blacks and other minorities from integrating with the whites. By zoning the individual into compartments determined by color, it excluded the opportunity for a fusion of interests. By confining children to separate neighborhood schools and playgrounds, it sharpened the lines of distinction and developed illusions of superiorityIt was in housing that segregation received its greatest impetus and momentum. Once rooted there the segregation pattern spread unattested until the Negro ghetto became an accepted part of the American landscape (Abrams 7). Local authorities used every available weapon to keep the blacks divided; housing was simply the physical expression of this racial policy (Rudwick 10). Even if a family was able to afford housing in a predominantly white neighborhood, they were still not allowed to move in there. Despite the slow improvement of their economic status Blacks .